Development of the  MIIPS  (Multipurpose  Interactive  Image

            Processing System) package of programs, was undertaken in Spring,

            1981 in the Physics Department at the University of Michigan (UM)

            under my direction, starting from a software package known as ROO

            (Reducing Observations Optimally)  transmitted  to  us  by  Susan

            Simpkin.   ROO  is  the  name  Dr.   Simkin  gave to the exported

            version of the PANDORA  package  of  programs  developed  at  Mt.

            Stromlo and Sliding Springs Observatory (MSSO), Australia.  MIIPS

            is designed to display and analyze several kinds of  astronomical

            and scientific data, such as one- and two-dimensional photometric

            and spectroscopic data.  Several different plotting  and  display

            devices are currently supported, however with the advent of color

            workstations,  more  effort  has  gone  into  support   for   the

            pseudocolor display server, SAOimage.  The code operates on a VAX

            computer running under VMS, Version 4.X and higher.  Portions  of

            the  package, e.g., the communications interface for SAOimage, an

            enhanced  version  of  SAOimage,  the  nonlinear  least   squares

            modules, the binary star combined solution, the plot package, and

            the grades package also will work under  Unix.   Because  of  the

            popularity  of  Linux  workstations,  effort has gone into making

            sure that the programs are compatible with the  Linux  flavor  of


                 Following  my  depature   from   the   Physics   Department,

            development of MIIPS continued in the Astronomy Department of the

            University of Michigan from the summer of 1988 to the  summer  of

            1989,  in  the Physics and Astronomy Department of Oklahoma State

            University form 1989 to 1992, and in the  Physics  and  Astronomy

            Department of Georgia State University up to the present.

                 The command structure for  these  programs  is  based  on  a

            simplified  version  of  the  Groningen  Image  Processing System

            (GIPSY) which was transfered to the MSSO VAX by  R.   D.   Ekers.

            The  native  data structure for the one- and two-dimensional disk

            files (which can contain several maps) was  constructed  by  Greg

            Quinn  and Denis Warne at MSSO after extensive group consultation

            with a committee at  the  Australian  Astronomical  Observatories

            (AAO)  consisting  of A.  Bosma (MSSSO), R.  Ekers (University of

            Groningen/MSSSO), B.   Newell  (MSSSO),  J.   Straede  (AAO),  P.

            Wallace  (AAO),  and  D.   Warne  (MSSSO).   Its official name is

            Standard Astronomical Data (SAD).  This data format is similar in

            keyword  structure  to the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS)

            tape format of Wells, Greisen, and  Harten  (1981).   The  actual

            disk  structure  for  the  data is VAX VMS independent and can be

            directly and rapidly copied to tape with the  VAX  COPY  utility.

            Standard  FITS tape writing and tape reading programs can also be

            used to transport this data.  (The tape read and  write  programs

            are  MTREAD and SADFITS, respectively.) There are also import and

            export options within MIIPS itself to convert between  FITS  disk

            files and SAD.

                 The original application programs in use at MSSO  and  later

            at  the  Midwestern Astronomical Data Reduction Facility (MADRAF)

            were  collected  from  a  range  of  sources.   The   programming

            languages  are  FORTRAN77, VAX Macro, and C.  The key subprograms

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            dealing with image arithmetic were written by Greg Quinn and Reet

            Valek  at  MSSO.   As mentioned above, the SAD format subprograms

            were written by  Greg  Quinn  and  Denis  Warne.   Some  plotting

            primitives  were  also written by Greg Quinn.  A subroutine which

            handles user input and which is in worldwide use was  written  by

            Ralph  Ekers.   Most of the software for the options within MIIPS

            has been extensively rewritten and  new  software  added  by  me.

            Most notable among the new additions are a plotting package which

            can address several different plot devices and  display  devices,

            galaxy  image  modeling  and surface photometry routines, various

            utility programs for manipulating and editing  images  and  data,

            linear and nonlinear least squares routines, and display routines

            for a Grinnell, a Trapix, and SAOimage.  Contributions to some of

            the  speckle  analysis programs were made by James Haywood of The

            University of Michigan.

                 To run the main package of programs, the user, who must have

            group privileges and the proper login command file, simply enters

            the word MIIPS.  The user is then prompted for an  option,  which

            takes  the  form  of  a  two  or  three letter mnemonic.  Further

            prompting by the  routine  then  occurs  as  the  user  is  asked

            questions  about  file  names,  commands, and choices.  These are

            saved in a file called OP.SVE (if the command was OP), and may be

            recalled  automatically the next time that operation is performed

            by entering .OP (see also below).  The SVE files can be  examined

            from  the  program  once  they  are created (the command is SVE).

            There is an online help facility which gives  short  descriptions

            of the commands or an example of any one command.  The USRINP and

            MESSAGE routines also write  to  a  log  file  (MIIPS.LOG)  which

            details  all  of  the  input  to  and  output  from the terminal.

            Extensive numerical output is written to  xxx.SAD  or  FORxxx.DAT


                 Volume I of this documentation includes a brief  description

            of  MIIPS,  its  options,  and  associated  useful  programs  and

            subprograms.  It is intended to be a user guide for MIIPS.  As of

            this  writing,  1999,  not  all of the documentation is complete.

            Also, not all of the MIIPS  options  have  been  fully  debugged,

            especially the ones connected with spectroscopy.

                 A listing of the help files will be found in Volume II,  but

            only  the  summary  of  the  options  is  up to date; many of the

            examples are definitely not up to date.

                 Volume  III  contains  detailed  explanations   of   various

            subroutines  used  in  MIIPS and the related programs.  These are

            mostly up to date.

                 The  MIIPS  package  and  associated  programs  are   freely

            available  to  interested  persons.   Since  development  of  the

            software is an  ongoing  process,  it  is  advisable  to  procure

            updates   at  regular  intervals.   The  entire  package  can  be

            downloaded   from

            All  questions  and  requests  for  tape  or  CD copies should be

            directed to me at

                                Version History

            1.0   Initial Version, support for Grinnell and plot package, 1982

            2.0   Support for Trapix, and other improvments, 1988

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            2.1   Support for Enhanced SAOimage and xterm, 1992

            2.2   Further improvements, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004

                 The author would like to acknowledge  the  support  of  U.S.

            Air  Force Office of Scientific Research, and the hospitality and

            support  of  the  Astronomy  Department  at  the  University   of

            Michigan,  the Physics and Astronomy Department at Oklahoma State

            University, Emory  University,  and  the  Physics  and  Astronomy

            Department at Georgia State University.

                                               Donald H. Gudehus